Kissock an American in 1981 who worked in Nigeria in the 1920’s defined social studies as “a programme of However, it remains unclear whether sprawl helps explain differences in levels of social capital, or health, across countries. Here we provide selected examples of the ways in which levels or distributions of physical and social environments relevant to health might differ between the United States and other high-income countries. Physical and social environment 303 makers are interested in the ‘social capital’ of areas. Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features? This reinforcement creates a vicious cycle in which the environment contributes to the development of social norms (such as reliance of automobile transportation) and the behavior resulting from the norm reinforces the environmental features (such as absence of bicycle lanes or public transportation) that sustain it. The factors in the physical environment that are important to health include harmful substances, such as air pollution or proximity to toxic sites (the focus of classic environmental epidemiology); access to various health-related resources (e.g., healthy or unhealthy foods, recreational resources, medical care); and community design and the “built environment” (e.g., land use mix, street connectivity, transportation … Few data are available to make cross-national comparisons of exposure to harmful physical or chemical environmental hazards. For example, the school environments of children, adolescents, and college students can affect diet, physical activity, and the use of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs (Katz, 2009; Wechsler and Nelson, 2008). Class 8 Social Studies on Map Reading and interpretation.Learn how to identify Features on a map, The climatic conditions of the area as well as measure distance, area and tell the direction. A range of other physical environmental features have been linked to other health outcomes. Moreover, environmental factors linked to space and place may in turn contribute to and reinforce socioeconomic and racial or ethnic health disparities (Bleich et al., 2012; Laveist et al., 2011). Meaning and Concept of Social Environment: True it is that man lives in particular geographical conditions and that he has for his society a definite pattern of economic activities; yet social man is as much the product of his social environment as he is of physical surroundings and economic conditions. The panel focused its attention on the role of local physical and social environments as potential contributors to the U.S. health disadvantage and did not systematically examine whether other contexts, such as school or work environments, differ substantially across high-income countries. Important areas for future cross-national research on environmental factors and health include (1) characterizing levels and distributions of environmental risk factors using comparable measures across countries; (2) documenting inequalities in the distribution of these environmental factors; (3) identifying the extent to which these environmental factors affect health and the extent to which their effects are modulated by individual-, community-, or country-level factors; (4) examining directly the contribution of environmental factors to health differences between the United States and other high-income countries; and (5) studying national, regional, and local country policies that may curb levels of adverse environmental exposures, reduce the extent to which they are inequitably distributed, or buffer their effects. in weight and diabetes indicators (Ludwig et al., 2011). A person’s social environment is their society and all surroundings influenced in some way by humans. Environment and the organisms are two dynamic and complex component of nature. For example, high levels of residential segregation may create large social inequalities across neighborhoods that, in the presence of easy access to guns, may result in high gun violence and homicide rates. Building upon Course I, this teaching guide for the first of four units of Course II introduces the secondary student to geographic concepts and generalizations of the physical world to which man has related over time. Several factors may explain the strong spatial patterns that are observed within countries. These barriers may inhibit physical activity for parts of the population, resulting in worse overall health. Wet Season: The wet season starts early April and lasts till October. The U.S. health disadvantage cannot be attributed solely to the adverse health status of racial or ethnic minorities or poor people: even highly advantaged Americans are in worse health than their counterparts in other, "peer" countries. In 2005, annual hours worked in the United States were 15 percent higher than the European Union average (OECD, 2008a). In addition, these environmental effects may contribute to the development of social norms regarding behaviors and weight (Christakis and Fowler, 2007), which then reinforce certain features of the physical environment, making them increasingly difficult to modify. Environmental studies connects principles from the physical sciences, commerce/economics, the humanities, and social sciences to address complex contemporary environmental issues. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book. View our suggested citation for this chapter. Sign up for email notifications and we'll let you know about new publications in your areas of interest when they're released. Environments that discourage physical activity may also limit social interactions, with potential implications for violence and drug use. FACTORS MATTER TO HEALTH? 6Other factors that are also frequently discussed, such as social norms, have been more difficult to study because of a variety of methodological and data challenges. Search for Other Answers. At least two studies have suggested that spatial variation in health-related resources may have very different distributions in the United States than in other countries. Environments also help to create and reinforce social norms (Hruschka. In an interesting link between physical and social environments, Putnam (2000) has argued that increasing sprawl could contribute to declining social capital in the United States because suburban commutes leave less time for social interactions. Help with Questions in Social Studies. Many European countries have strong antisprawl and pro-urban centralization policies that may contribute to environments that encourage walking and physical activity as part of daily life (Richardson and Bae, 2004).13. International comparisons of the social environment are complicated by difficulties in obtaining comparable measures of social environments. through effects on drug use, which also has consequences for violence and mental-health-related outcomes.9. How far man influences nature and to what extent nature delivers its bounties constitute another objective of environmental studies. Ready to take your reading offline? It includes the culture that the individual was educated or lives in, and the people and institutions with whom they interact. Legislative policies in other countries limit circulation and ownership of firearms by civilians. Sort by: BrainPOP Social Studies Free movies, games, activities, and more for students interested in social studies. The physical environment can be virtually anything concrete that children may encounter in their lives. Across countries, studies have also shown that physical activity by children is associated with features of the built environment, including walking-related features, and physical activity resources (Bringolf-Isler et al., 2010; Davison and Lawson, 2006; Galvez et al., 2010; Sallis and Glanz, 2006).5, Although more definitive evidence is needed (see Feng et al., 2010), it has been hypothesized that these environmental features may contribute to the obesity epidemic (Galvez et al., 2010; Papas et al., 2007; Sallis and Glanz, 2009). SOCIAL STUDIES CLASS 6 PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT The physical environment is what is found around us The countries of eastern africa Eastern africa is the region located in the eastern region of africa It is made up of eleven independent countries namely i. 4. For example, OECD data indicate that the United States has the highest prevalence of “pro-social behavior,” defined as volunteering time, donating to charities, and helping strangers (OECD, 2011e). Large geographic disparities in toxic exposures to environmental hazards and in healthy food access have been repeatedly noted in U.S. communities (Diez Roux and Mair, 2010; Mohai et al., 2009; Pastor et al., 2005). One theory for the tendency of some immigrant groups to have better health outcomes than might be expected on the basis of their incomes and education (see Chapter 6) is the social support immigrants often provide one another (Matthews et al., 2010). Elements of weather are: Climate: Climate can be defined as the average weather condition of a place for a period of many months or years. Physical environment means the natural and man made features of an area. evidence is more limited to compare these countries in terms of social cohesion, social capital, or social participation. It includes all relationships, institutions, culture, and physical structures. PHILOSOPHY OF SOCIAL STUDIES Social Studies is primarily concerned with the study of people, their activities and relationships, as they interact with one another and with their physical and socio-cultural environment in an effort to meet heir needs (to live and to make a living). One mechanism through which the social environment can enhance health is through social support. a) Struggler b) one without difference c) stubborn d) illiterate. It centres on the development of man, how man influences his environment and how the environment influences him in return. The food intake of the U.S. population is influenced by both supply and demand, particularly food availability, advertising, and other aspects of the way in which meals are socially produced, distributed, and consumed (including mass production and marketing of cheap calorie-dense foods and large portion sizes) (Institute of Medicine, 2006a; Nestle, 2002; Story. The identification of causal effects using these aggregate summaries raises a number of methodological challenges and does not allow one to identify the specific environmental attributes that may be relevant. A previous National Research Council (2011) report and a paper prepared for that study (Banks et al., 2010) did not find much evidence that the United States had unique social networks, social support, or social integration. In contrast with traditional environmental health approaches that focus primarily on toxic substances in air, water, and soil, this more recent approach conceptualizes the environment more broadly to encompass a range of human-made physical and social features that are affected by public policy (Frumkin, 2005). Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Levels of safety and violence may also be more strongly spatially segregated in the United States than in other countries, resulting in areas with greater exposure to violence and its harmful health consequences. The Physical Environment. Residential segregation (and its many social and physical correlates) may be another environmental factor that affects multiple, seemingly unrelated health domains in which the United States has a health disadvantage. Although studies of residential segregation do not directly assess environmental factors, to the extent that segregation is related to differences in exposure to environmental factors, countries with greater segregation may also experience greater spatial inequities in the distribution of environmental factors, resulting in greater health inequalities and possible consequences for overall health status. recent evidence also suggests that residential segregation by income and neighborhood disadvantage has been increasing over time in the United States (Reardon and Bischoff, 2011). Do you enjoy reading reports from the Academies online for free? 13Even in these countries, however, automobile use is rising quickly. Similar geographic disparities may exist for other environmental features. The United States is among the wealthiest nations in the world, but it is far from the healthiest. QUESTION 1: DO ENVIRONMENTAL The environment has a huge impact on an individual’s behaviour and intellect. All units of the second course emphasize the process of development whereby man, coping with given conditions in his physical environment, develops established ways of dealing with the … It last from November to March. © 2020 National Academy of Sciences. It is noteworthy that these environmental factors may interact with other factors at both “higher” levels of broad social policy and “lower” levels that operate at the individual level. The effects of particulate matter on mortality appear to be consistent across countries. 7 A digital library supporting Digital Pedagogy at School and Homeschooling at home. The student is expected to: (3)(4) Geography. et al., 2011) that influence health outcomes. Scheme of work for Social Studies for Junior secondary school one (1) first term covers the following topics and sub-topics; Meaning, Scope and Nature of Social Studies, Objectives & Importance of Social Studies., Physical Environment: Meaning, Types and Features, Resources in Our Environment and their Uses, Environmental Problem, Causes, Effects and Solutions, Social Environment: Meaning … Although the precise effects of these transportation differences on people’s energy expenditure is difficult to quantify, it seems reasonable to expect that different transportation patterns would have important implications for U.S. levels of obesity (Pucher et al., 2010a). Research has identified specific physiologic mechanisms by which these exposures affect inflammatory, autonomic, and vascular processes (Brook et al., 2010; Tzivian, 2011). Easy access to unhealthy foods may interact with personal sources of stress (e.g., from work) in promoting the consumption of calorie-dense foods. Other data indicate that nearly 3 percent of people in the United States report “rarely” or “never” spending time with friends, colleagues, or others in social settings. Physical environmental threats (such as proximity to hazardous sites) may be more prevalent in low-income or minority neighborhoods, a concern of the environmental justice movement (Brulle and Pellow, 2006; Evans and Kantrowitz, 2002; Mohai et al., 2009; Morello-Frosch et al., 2011). (1) living in ...” in Social Studies if you're in doubt about the correctness of the answers or there's no answer, then try to use the smart search and find answers to the similar questions. Other working conditions and work-related policies for U.S. employees often differ from those of workers in peer countries. Many aspects of the physical and social environment can affect people’s health.1 Spatial contexts linked to regions or neighborhoods are among. Military Families. Check Eligibility. GRADE 3 SOCIAL STUDIES, CROSSWALK FROM 2010 TEKS TO 2018 STREAMLINED TEKS 2010 TEKS Streamlining Red Strikethrough = removed from a student expectation (SE) or knowledge and skills (K&S) statement ... humans adapt to variations in the physical environment. Get on our mailing list. A comprehensive understanding of the causes of the U.S. health disadvantage will require recognizing how the environment interacts with these other factors and helps perpetuate or mitigate the disadvantage across a broad set of health domains. A New Zealand study found that area deprivation was not always consistently associated with lack of community resources (including recreational amenities, shopping, educational and health facilities) (Pearce et al., 2007). Social environments may also operate. environment and fulfill his possibilities’ (Y.K.Singh, p.22). Environmental studies refer to an extensive and systematic study of nature/environment and of its physical, biological, social, and cultural factors, and the nature and characteristics of relationship between man and environment. The environment refers to our immediate surroundings in which all living and non-living components co-exist. Which situation provides the best evidence that the Iroquois (Haudenosaunee) adapted to their physical environment? Geography derives its data base from all the natural and social sciences and attempts their synthesis. The evidence of environmental effects of air pollution and lead has been reflected in legislation in many countries directed at reducing levels of these pollutants in the environment. Dry/ harmattan season: There is a short dry season in August, which is followed by a long dry season often called harmattan in Nigeria. The physical and social environment where adolescents are active differs from that of children and adults. Exposure to job strain exhibits a strong social gradient, which influences inequalities in the health of workers (Bambra, 2011).10. The heavy reliance on automobile transportation in the United States is linked to traffic levels, which contribute to air pollution and its health consequences (Brook et al., 2010; Laumbach and Kipen. Living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods (as a proxy for a range of environmental exposures) has been linked to higher rates of injury in both adults and children (Cubbin et al., 2000; Durkin et al., 1994). By this, we hope to be able to raise enrollment numbers and reduce the poor academic performance of students and the drastic failure rates in exams while also working to enhance Instructional Practice among Teachers using familiar channels of interaction to train and empower them on the use and adoption of technology. Although there are many different definitions of social capital, it is generally taken to mean the sense of community or trust within an area (Lochner, Kawachi and Kennedy, 1999; Harpham, Grant and Thomas, 2002). Stressful psychosocial work environments and “job strain”—which refers to high external demands on a worker with low levels of control or rewards—have become recognized as prominent determinants of health and have been linked to self-reported ill health (Stansfeld et al., 1998), adverse mental health outcomes (Clougherty et al., 2010; Low et al., 2010; Stansfeld and Candy, 2006), and markers of chronic disease (Fujishiro et al., 2011). Social studies is the study of man and his physical, social, political, cultural and economical environment. Educational process of development occurs in physical, social, cultural and psychological environment. In the engineering and social sciences, the term built environment, or built world, ... built environment refers to physical environments that are designed with health and wellness as integral parts of the communities. Perceptions and stereotypes about area reputation, local demand for products and services, and the purchasing power of residents may also influence the location of health-relevant resources. - Vegetation are the plants collectively found in a particular habitat. It is plausible to hypothesize that factors in the built environment related to low-density land development and high reliance on automobile transportation; environmental factors related to the wide availability, distribution, and marketing of unhealthy foods; and residential segregation by income and race (with its social and economic correlates) may be important contributors to the U.S. health disadvantage in many domains. ... A functional study of Natural and Physical sciences and Fine Arts. There is, for example, little evidence that air pollution is a more severe problem in the United States than in other high-income countries (Baldasano et al., 2003; OECD, 2012a; Parker et al., 2011a).11 Although cross-national comparisons of the volume of emissions and carbon production per gross domestic product show that the United States is a major emitter, this finding does not provide a basis for comparing the cleanliness or healthfulness of air, water, or other resources. Jun 22, 2016 - Image result for worksheet on physical features of india .. Social studies are a subject that deals with the study of. One recent review found that access to open space (parks and other green spaces) in neighborhoods was associated with physical activity levels in both the United States and Australia (Pearce and Maddison, 2011). Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name. 9Although findings have not always been consistent, levels of safety, violence, and other social environmental features have also been found to be associated with walking and physical activity (Foster and Giles-Corti, 2008). Weather Start studying 3rd Grade Social Studies- Physical Characteristics of Environment. For example, cross-national comparisons show that levels of active transportation, such as walking or cycling, can be effectively modified by specific land use and transportation policies (Pucher and Dijkstra, 2003; Pucher et al., 2010b). 4Although in the U.S. context a number of studies have reported associations of local access to healthy foods with diet, some studies have not detected such associations (Cummins et al., 2005; Pearce et al., 2008). Indeed, a major motivation for the research on environmental determinants of health has been the repeated observation that many health outcomes are spatially patterned. Types of environment The Social Environment Cardinal Points Governing our Community Characteristics of a community The family community The school community The Coat- of - Arms The … As noted in Chapter 5, certain forms of drug use (which is often linked to other social environmental features) also appear to be more prevalent in the United States than in other high-income countries. Transportation behavior also differs between the United States and other high-income countries, with U.S. residents walking and cycling substantially less than Europeans (Bassett et al., 2008; Buehler et al., 2011; Hallal et al., 2012). Vegetation: This is the kind of plants which can be found in an area. Environment definition Forest Resources . Levels of residential segregation shape environmental differences across neighborhoods (Reardon and Bischoff, 2011; Subramanian et al., 2005). The social environment has been equated with his culture and writers like Graham … Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website. The existing land use patterns and reliance on private automobile transportation not only contribute to traffic volume and injury fatalities, but probably also contribute to physical inactivity, air pollution, and carbon emissions. Studies have shown consistent relationships between social capital and self-reported health status, as well as to some measures of mortality (Barefoot et al., 1998; Blakeley et al., 2001; Kawachi, 1999; Kawachi et al., 1997; OECD, 2010c; Schultz et al., 2008; Subramanian et al., 2002). Another important environmental influence on homicide and suicide rates is the ease of access to firearms, which has a strong association with homicide rates (Hepburn and Hemenway, 2004). The physical environment comprises all the different factors of nature, including trees, lakes, the ocean etc. This figure is one of the lowest in the OECD (2012a). In light of the new and growing evidence about the U.S. health disadvantage, the National Institutes of Health asked the National Research Council (NRC) and the Institute of Medicine (IOM) to convene a panel of experts to study the issue. Esoma.Ke Home; Kids Learning; ... Every map has symbols which represent physical and man-made features on a map. Workplaces have also long been recognized as important determinants of health and health inequalities, occupational safety, and access to preventive services (Anderson et al., 2009; Schulte et al., 2011). It is the state of the atmosphere at a place and time as regards heat, dryness, sunshine, wind, rain, etc. Older people who live in areas with high The physical environment involves the physical things such as lakes, rivers, mountains, valley etc. It refers to both abiotic (physical or non-living) and biotic (living) environment. health outcomes, including many of the outcomes for which there are cross-national health differences, such as noncommunicable diseases, associated risk factors, injuries, and violence. Physical working conditions (e.g., exposure to dangerous substances, such as lead, asbestos, mercury), as well as physical demands (e.g., carrying heavy loads), human factors, and ergonomic problems can affect the health and safety of employees. The environment can affect health through physical exposures, such as air pollution (OECD, 2012b). Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. We have noted that there exist variations over the surface of the earth in its physical as well as cultural environment. It is a broad field of study that includes the natural environment, the built … Work on the “transmission” of obesity through social networks has highlighted the possible importance of social norms in shaping many health-related behaviors (Christakis and Fowler, 2007; Hruschka et al., 2011; Kawachi and Berkman, 2000).8 A long tradition of sociological research links these social features not only to illness, but also to risks of violence (Morenoff et al., 2001; Sampson et al., 1997). However, these conditions are important to health. Transportation systems and other aspects of physical environments that influence driving behaviors are also related to injury morbidity and mortality (Douglas et al., 2011). Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available. A number of phenomena are similar and many are dissimilar. Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email. For example, a recent review of studies from the late 1990s to mid-2000s found a consistent inverse relationship between airborne particulate matter and birth weight in Australia, Brazil, Canada, France, Italy, the Netherlands, South Korea, the United Kingdom, and the United States (Parker et al., 2011a). Changes in the condition of the atmosphere happens as a result of changes in the following elements which may also be called elements of weather. Other important differences in work-related policies include employment protection and unemployment benefits, as well as family and sickness leave (see Chapter 8). the most frequently studied,2 but other contexts may also be important for certain segments of the population.3. A proper and adequate 1Although analytically distinct, physical and social environments may also influence and reinforce each other: for example, physical features related to walkability may contribute to social norms regarding walking, which may in turn promote more walkable urban designs and community planning. 3The environment can also be considered on a larger geographic scale, especially in seeking explanations for cross-national health differences. Strong spatial variation is present for a large range of. Data on population exposures to air pollution across countries are relatively scarce (OECD, 2008b). The physical environment involves the physical things such as lakes, rivers, mountains, valley etc. An important difficulty in comparing results across countries is that the proxy measure for the local food environment is often the type of food stores or restaurants available (such as supermarkets or fast food outlets), but the extent to which these typologies reflect relevant differences in the foods actually available to consumers may differ significantly across countries. A network of social relationships is an important source of support and appears to be an important influence on health behaviors. In 2008, the United States had 800 motor vehicles per 1,000 people compared with 526 in the United Kingdom, 521 in Sweden, 598 in France, and 554 in Germany (World Bank, 2012b). QUESTION 3: DO ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS 12Particulate matter less than 10 micrometers in diameter (PM-10) poses a health concern because it can accumulate in the respiratory system. On another measure, OECD data suggest that levels of trust14 are lower in the United States than the OECD average and than in all peer countries but Portugal, with Nordic countries showing the highest levels (OECD, 2011e). For example, analyses of comparable travel surveys show that between 2001-2002 and 2008-2009, the proportion of “any walking” was stable in the United States, at 18.5 percent, while it increased in Germany from 36.5 to 42.3 percent. Unfortunately, the study was not designed to identify the specific environmental features responsible for the observed effect. According to ecological models of health behaviour, physical activity is influenced by individual, social and physical environmental characteristics [ 15 ]. For example, aside from their direct links to injury mortality (see Chapter 1), violence and drug use may be indirect markers of social environmental features that affect other health outcomes. There is scant literature comparing social and physical environmental features across countries. One available measure is the concentration of particulate matter less than 10 micrometers in diameter (PM-10):12 in the United States, the concentration of PM-10 levels is 19.4 micrograms per cubic meter, lower than the OECD average of 22 micrograms per cubic meter (OECD, 2012a). Social support has appeared in many (but not all) studies to buffer the effects of stress (Cohen and Wills, 1985; Matthews and Gallo, 2011; Ozbay et al., 2007, 2008). 8Analytical complexities make the isolation of these effects difficult in observational studies. By definition, environmental factors affect large groups that share common living or working spaces. 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